Type: PhD thesis
Publication date: 03/07/2017

Namesort descending Role
Celso Oliveira Azevedo Advisor *

Examining board:

Namesort descending Role
Alexandre Pires Aguiar Internal Examiner *
Cecília Waichert Monteiro Internal Alternate *
Celso Oliveira Azevedo Advisor *
Julia Calhau Almeida Internal Examiner *
Victor Hugo Gonzalez Betancourt External Examiner *

Summary: The Scleroderminae have currently 22 genera, seven of them have antennae with 10 flagellomeres. All the previous phylogenetic studied never accessed these genera in their whole range. Thus the main aim of this study is to revisit the phylogenies proposed for Scleroderminae emphasizing these genera, which correspond to the old sense of Cephalonomiini. For that, we analyzed 83 terminals of 21 genera of Scleroderminae and scored118 codified informative characters. Six new genera are proposed, described and illustrated as follows: new genera A, B, C, D, E and F. Twenty-six new species are described and illustrated as follow: A sp. nov. 01 from Thailand, B sp. nov. 02 from Madagascar, B sp. nov. 03 from Madagascar, B sp. nov. 04 from Madagascar, C sp. nov. 05 from Madagascar, D sp. nov. 06 from Madagascar, E sp. nov. 07 from Madagascar, F sp. nov. 08 from Madagascar, Allobethylus sp. nov. 09 from Vanuatu, Alloplastanoxus sp. nov. 10 from Madagascar, Alloplastanoxus sp. nov. 11 from Brazil, Discleroderma sp. nov. 12 from Indonesia, Discleroderma sp. nov. 13 from Thailand, Discleroderma sp. nov. 14 from Thailand, Glenosema sp. nov. 15 from France, Israelius sp. nov. 16 from United Arab Emirates, Israelius sp. nov. 17 from South Africa, Israelius sp. nov. 18 from Madagascar, Megaprosternum sp. nov. 19 from Mariana Islands, Megaprosternum sp. nov. 20 from Laos, Nothepyris sp. nov. 21 from Brazil, Nothepyris sp. nov. 22 from Dominican Republic, Prorops sp. nov. 23 from Thailand, Prorops sp. nov. 24 from Vietnam, Prorops sp. nov. 25 from United Arab Emirates and Tuberepyris sp. nov. 26 from South Africa. Additionally we describe by the first time the male of Nothepyris brasiliensis Evans, the female of Megaprosternum longiceps Azevedo and the first apterous male of Glenosema. Sierola depressa marquisensis had its status elevated and it will be transferred to Thlastepyris and the transference of Israelius amputatus into the genus B will be proposed. Scleroderminae are recovered as a clade with low but positive symmetrical resampling support and the character notauli straight was found as putative synapomorphy for Scleroderminae. The extensive homoplasy across the topology is regarded as evidence of the high morphological diversity in the subfamily. The monophyly of Cephalonomiini is not recovered. The clades recovered by implied weighting include the 11-flagellomered clades (Nothepyris + Discleroderma), (Chilepyris + Glenosema), (Solepyris + (Tuberepyris + (Alongatepyris + Thlastepyris))) that we call flat-bodied clade, a clade D composed mainly by 10-flagellomered genera, and two subclades D1 and D2, recovered by implied weighting, that appears to represent two different lineages. The symmetrical resampling supports as a clade the genera Discleroderma, Glenosema, Alloplastanoxus, Pararhabdepyris and Prorops. The recognition of Nothepyris, Allobethylus, Plastanoxus, Cephalonomia and Israelius as paraphyletic groups, reflecting their poor taxonomy. Israelius becomes a clade from the taxonomic modification proposed. Chilepyris is recognized as sister-group of Glenosema. The male-female association of Galodoxa proposed by Vargas & Azevedo (2016) is recovered and supported. Megaprosternum was found to be polyphyletic in relation to Platepyris and based on the description of a new species with 10 flagellomeres and large pentagonal prosternum is recovered as sister-group of Cephalonomia. Support for other lineages and their impact on the classification of Scleroderminae is discussed. Several character states are mapped onto the new phylogeny, especially the number of flagellomeres that was found homoplastic, and several considerations about the evolution of the characters are presented. Key words. Chrysidoidea, character evolution, new genera, homoplasy.

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